3. Linear project management life cycle model
The linear project management life cycle model is used in the traditional project management. This management approach is for those projects whose goal and solution are clear. These projects are repetitious and skilled that there is almost no hidden changes or surprise during the whole project since it has been practiced and managed a lot. These projects are also on the lower scale of complexity baring lower risks. The project often processed by the plan with little changes. According to Thomas(2010) “The project was relatively low risk since each conceivable variable was eliminated and the prototype was repeated so many times that the systems used to build were repeated. Also, the personal of such project often have experienced and accustomed to such kind of project. The linear project management life cycle model is processed in linear manner in the order of five process which are Scope to Plan to Launch to Monitor and Control and then to Project Closeout. The process is plan driven and everything is prepared before everything started. There are no room for adjustments in the implement of the project. According to Wysocki (2009)“knowledge based from one process group (…) cannot be used to revise and improve the deliverable”. Any changes would put pressure on the management of the project. According to Wysocki (p. 329 2009), “The Linear PMLC model is change intolerant”. The following would explain five problems with the traditional project management method in these process. It will propose several ways to mitigate the risks.
3.1 It does not welcome changes in during the process.
The linear project management life cycle model is based on the very first plan or research from the client. The manager of the project should embrace and accommodate such kind of change. When client did not fully expressed their needs or there is a change request from the client. It can hardly accommodate and adapting to the new process. While due to nature of many business and project, under this rapidly changing environment, there are many possibilities and situations that are going to need changes. There is a dynamic momentum for change in current business world. Frequent changes should be recognized by the project manager. Lots of circumstances could lead to such kind changes such as new requirements from customer, new technology emerged in some system as well as unexpected situations. While the linear project management life cycle model largely rely on the initial plan, this could possibly cause delays in some process of the whole procedure and therefore delay the whole schedule of overall project. For this problem, the mitigation method would be establishing contingencies system for any emergency or sudden change. Also, streamlined process should be adopted by the manager of project to mitigate this risk. In the process of planning and scoping, every step should be clear, detailed and thorough as much as possible. If any change happens, the preparation of contingencies could help to ease the pressure of the manage team and give more room for the manager of the project to maneuver. It will be more flexible for the staffs to complete their work in the most efficient way according to customers’ need.
3.2 Too much time might be spent in the scoping and planning.
Due to lots of milestone and completion date should be meet to keep the track of different stages of the project. The manager of the project may spend a large amount time and energy to make the plan and scope. The planning and programming cost for projects could be huge. The company should manage to limit the project cycle life. Non-value added work should be cut down to the great level. Thus, it is important for the manager of project to know the time and the way to bring in the strategies of multiple release and condense the schedules for the project to the largest degree in order to get the product or service on the market as much as possible. The “never ending design” could lead to a very expensive process. Another thing is that this could delay the time product or service reach to the market. The company should manage to limit the project cycle life. Non-value added work should be cut down to the largest level. Too much time and too much money spend on the planning process would be hard for the company to get business value back. This contradicts the need of the contemporary market needs for high speed and lower costs. To solve this problem, the manager of the project could resort this the following method. The deadline for planning and scoping should be set before it started. Review and input for the design document should be finished within this period of time. Furthermore, any change to the plan should from one authority. Therefore, during the period of planning, a representative group should be established to review and decide the changes to the plan. Any change should be submitted to the committee first and be approve by it. And the committee is the only authority to make change to the plan.